. Every stage of life is impacted by mental health diseases, which range from dementia to schizophrenia. The World Health Organization estimates that one in eight people worldwide suffers from a mental condition, and that poor mental health costs the world economy $1 trillion in lost productivity each year.In a study of nearly 100 women, participants with certain dissociative symptoms had increased connections within some brain networks and decreased connections within others. The new findings shed light on the brain connectivity associated with these debilitating symptoms and ultimately may help clinicians diagnose and treat affected patients.
Does EMDR (eye movement desensitization and reprocessing) therapy work for trauma? It has been all the rage recently, but what is it? Does it have any studies or scientific basis â or is it just the latest internet fad?. Columbia researchers identify 60 new autism genes. A recent study conducted by Columbia University researchers has identified 60 genes associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), which may provide valuable clues about the causes of autism across the full spectrum of the disorder. “Overall, t. Patients with advanced ankle osteoarthritis who undergo surgery see equally good outcomes from the two main surgical treatments for osteoarthritis, a new study has shown.
. Neuroscientists described compelling new evidence of a critical neuroplasticity period in the frontal brain region during adolescence, a time when major mental illnesses such as depression and schizophrenia emerge and risk-taking behavior peaks. .
. A new AI algorithm used fMRI data to identify novel brain patterns linked to mental health disorders. Once thought of as a mere motor coordination center, the “little brain” is now appreciated as participating in higher neurological processes.
. UCLA study is the most comprehensive effort ever to study how autism affects the brain at the molecular level. Brain changes in autism are comprehensive throughout the cerebral cortex, not only confined to particular regions traditionally considered to affect language and social behavior. These a. The long-term physical and mental sequelae of COVID-19 are a growing public health concern, yet there is considerable uncertainty about their prevalence, persistence and predictors. We conducted a comprehensive, up-to-date meta-analysis of survivors’ health consequences and sequelae for COVID-19. PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library were searched through Sep 30th, 2021. Observational studies that reported the prevalence of sequelae of COVID-19 were included. Two reviewers independently undertook the data extraction and quality assessment. Of the 36,625 records identified, a total of 151 studies were included involving 1,285,407 participants from thirty-two countries. At least one sequelae symptom occurred in 50.1% (95% CI 45.4-54.8) of COVID-19 survivors for up to 12 months after infection. The most common investigation findings included abnormalities on lung CT (56.9%, 95% CI 46.2–67.3) and abnormal pulmonary function tests (45.6%, 95% CI 36.3–55.0), followed by generalized symptoms, such as fatigue (28.7%, 95% CI 21.0–37.0), psychiatric symptoms (19.7%, 95% CI 16.1–23.6) mainly depression (18.3%, 95% CI 13.3–23.8) and PTSD (17.9%, 95% CI 11.6–25.3), and neurological symptoms (18.7%, 95% CI 16.2–21.4), such as cognitive deficits (19.7%, 95% CI 8.8–33.4) and memory impairment (17.5%, 95% CI 8.1–29.6). Subgroup analysis showed that participants with a higher risk of long-term sequelae were older, mostly male, living in a high-income country, with more severe status at acute infection. Individuals with severe infection suffered more from PTSD, sleep disturbance, cognitive deficits, concentration impairment, and gustatory dysfunction. Survivors with mild infection had high burden of anxiety and memory impairment after recovery. Our findings suggest that after recovery from acute COVID-19, half of survivors still have a high burden of either physical or mental sequelae up to at least 12 months. It is important to provide urgent and appropriate prevention and intervention management to preclude persistent or emerging long-term sequelae and to promote the physical and psychiatric wellbeing of COVID-19 survivors.
Genome-wide association study meta-analysis of suicide death and suicidal behavior
Suicide is a worldwide health crisis. We aimed to identify genetic risk variants associated with suicide death and suicidal behavior. Meta-analysis for suicide death was performed using 3765 cases from Utah and matching 6572 controls of European ancestry. Meta-analysis for suicidal behavior using data across five cohorts (n = 8315 cases and 256,478 psychiatric or populational controls of European ancestry) was also performed. One locus in neuroligin 1 (NLGN1) passing the genome-wide significance threshold for suicide death was identified (top SNP rs73182688, with p = 5.48 × 10−8 before and p = 4.55 × 10−8 after mtCOJO analysis conditioning on MDD to remove genetic effects on suicide mediated by MDD). Conditioning on suicidal attempts did not significantly change the association strength (p = 6.02 × 10−8), suggesting suicide death specificity. NLGN1 encodes a member of a family of neuronal cell surface proteins. Members of this family act as splice site-specific ligands for beta-neurexins and may be involved in synaptogenesis. The NRXN-NLGN pathway was previously implicated in suicide, autism, and schizophrenia. We additionally identified ROBO2 and ZNF28 associations with suicidal behavior in the meta-analysis across five cohorts in gene-based association analysis using MAGMA. Lastly, we replicated two loci including variants near SOX5 and LOC101928519 associated with suicidal attempts identified in the ISGC and MVP meta-analysis using the independent FinnGen samples. Suicide death and suicidal behavior showed positive genetic correlations with depression, schizophrenia, pain, and suicidal attempt, and negative genetic correlation with educational attainment. These correlations remained significant after conditioning on depression, suggesting pleiotropic effects among these traits. Bidirectional generalized summary-data-based Mendelian randomization analysis suggests that genetic risk for the suicidal attempt and suicide death are both bi-directionally causal for MDD.Mood disorders (MD) are a major burden on society as their biology remains poorly understood, challenging both diagnosis and therapy. Among many observed biological dysfunctions, homeostatic dysregulation, such as metabolic syndrome (MeS), shows considerable comorbidity with MD. Recently, CREB-regulated transcription coactivator 1 (CRTC1), a regulator of brain metabolism, was proposed as a promising factor to understand this relationship. Searching for imaging biomarkers and associating them with pathophysiological mechanisms using preclinical models can provide significant insight into these complex psychiatric diseases and help the development of personalized healthcare. Here, we used neuroimaging technologies to show that deletion of Crtc1 in mice leads to an imaging fingerprint of hippocampal metabolic impairment related to depressive-like behavior. By identifying a deficiency in hippocampal glucose metabolism as the underlying molecular/physiological origin of the markers, we could assign an energy-boosting mood-stabilizing treatment, ebselen, which rescued behavior and neuroimaging markers. Finally, our results point toward the GABAergic system as a potential therapeutic target for behavioral dysfunctions related to metabolic disorders. This study provides new insights on Crtc1’s and MeS’s relationship to MD and establishes depression-related markers with clinical potential.WHO strongly advises against antibody treatments for covid-19 patients Updated guidance replaces previous conditional recommendations for their use The antibody drugs sotrovimab and casirivimab-imdevimab are not recommended for patients with covid-19, says a WHO Guideline Development Group of international experts in The BMJ today. These drugs work by binding to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, neutralising the virus’s. Large scale study reveals burnout levels are highest in hospital doctors working in emergency medicine and intensive care Doctors experiencing burnout are twice as likely to be involved in patient safety incidents and four times more likely to be dissatisfied with their job, suggests research published today by The BMJ. The scale of burnout amongst clinicians. The AI is capable of detecting autism, schizophrenia and Alzheimer’s before the symptoms set in. Scientists say it could one day spot Alzheimer’s 20 years earlier.Humans are exposed to extreme environmental stressors during spaceflight and return with alterations in brain structure and shifts in intracranial fluids. To date, no studies have evaluated the effects of spaceflight on perivascular spaces (PVSs) within the brain, which are believed to facilitate fluid drainage and brain homeostasis. Here, we examined how the number and morphology of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-visible PVSs are affected by spaceflight, including prior spaceflight experience. Fifteen astronauts underwent six T1-weighted 3 T MRI scans, twice prior to launch and four times following their return to Earth after ~ 6-month missions to the International Space Station. White matter MRI-visible PVS number and morphology were calculated using an established, automated segmentation algorithm. We validated our automated segmentation algorithm by comparing algorithm PVS counts with those identified by two trained raters in 50 randomly selected slices from this cohort; the automated algorithm performed similarly to visual ratings (r(48) = 0.77, p < 0.001). In addition, we found high reliability for four of five PVS metrics across the two pre-flight time points and across the four control time points (ICC(3,k) > 0.50). Among the astronaut cohort, we found that novice astronauts showed an increase in total PVS volume from pre- to post-flight, whereas experienced crewmembers did not (p = 0.020), suggesting that experienced astronauts may exhibit holdover effects from prior spaceflight(s). Greater pre-flight PVS load was associated with more prior flight experience (r = 0.60–0.71), though these relationships did not reach statistical significance (p > 0.05). Pre- to post-flight changes in ventricular volume were not significantly associated with changes in PVS characteristics, and the presence of spaceflight associated neuro-ocular syndrome (SANS) was not associated with PVS number or morphology. Together, these findings demonstrate that PVSs can be consistently identified on T1-weighted MRI scans, and that spaceflight is associated with PVS changes. Specifically, prior spaceflight experience may be an important factor in determining PVS characteristics.
Our study suggests that modulation of LFO dynamics is an important mechanism by which
PFC accommodates neurological injuries, supporting the reports of GageÂ´s recovery,
and represents an attractive target for therapeutic interventions.By estimating people’s brain age from MRI scans using machine learning, a team of researchers has identified multiple risk factors for a prematurely aging brain.Approximately 6.5 million Americans are living with Alzheimer disease today, and that number is projected to rise to about 13 million by 2050.Autism and schizophrenia share a long and tangled history. Comparing the social features of the two conditions could lead to better treatments and a deeper understanding of each.
. Practicing positive affirmations â a technique of repeating optimistic thoughts and phrases frequently â may be able to reshape your brain and help ease some symptoms of depression.Comparing the social features of the two conditions could lead to better treatments and a deeper understanding of each. Covid-19 vaccines and drugs were developed at “warp speed”. Experts are concerned about the US FDA’s inadequate surveillance of clinical trials.BMJ announces partnership with Overton to advance real-world impact of health & medical research. They are well suited to deliver an innovative impact solution.‘Overdosing’ on vitamin D is possible and harmful, warn doctors in the BMJ Case Reports after they treated a man in hospital for excessive vitamin D intake.