. Laurence Steinberg squints up at the glossy, backlit rows of the latest MRI scans from his research study. He leans in close as his fingers trace over small details in the images. It’s these details at the tips of his fingers that give him a clear and compelling answer about why young people are so much more likely to engage in gun violence. One thing has become clear to Steinberg: The increasing rates of gun violence also provide a growing amount of evidence that there are ways to permanently address gun violence.Participants.
Additional research necessary to parse potential benefits and harms of video games on the developing brain. After the fall of communism in Romania, thousands of children were discovered in institutional orphanages across the country. Because of high child to caregiver ratios, these children were neglected. At the end of last year, United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) released a new report, ‘Preventing A Lost Decade: Urgent Action’ to reverse the devastating impact of COVID- 19 on children and young people. While it is easy for reports released in December to get lost in the end of the year rush, this report. . Results add to scientific evidence of negative health effects of cannabis use during pregnancy.
Obesity may be associated with ‘poor brain health’ in children
Children with a higher weight and body mass index (BMI) are more likely to have negative brain changes, a new long-term study has found.Using a special type of MRI, researchers have uncovered brain changes in patients up to six months after they recovered from COVID-19, according to a study being presented next week at the annual meeting of the Radiological Society of North America.How the tissue composition of the human brain is determined remains unclear. Here, the authors apply advanced analyses to two large imaging genetic datasets to identify and validate genetic loci that simultaneously influence multiple brain regions.
Children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) are at risk for reduced cognitive ability and atypical brain development. This study shows that brain and cognitive measures can be improved in adolescents with T1D using a semi-automated insulin delivery system.MRI data from more than 100 studies have been aggregated to yield new insights about brain development and ageing, and create an interactive open resource for comparison of brain structures throughout the human lifespan, including those associated with neurological and psychiatric disorders. Parental religious beliefs and practices (religiosity) may have profound effects on youth, especially in neurodevelopmentally complex periods such as adolescence. In n = 5566 children (median age = 120.0 months; 52.1% females; 71.2% with religious affiliation) from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development study, relationships between parental religiosity and non-religious beliefs on family values (data on youth beliefs were not available), topological properties of youth resting-state brain networks, and executive function, inhibitory control, and cognitive flexibility were investigated. Lower caregiver education and family income were associated with stronger parental beliefs (p < 0.01). Strength of both belief types was correlated with lower efficiency, community structure, and robustness of frontoparietal control, temporoparietal, and dorsal attention networks (p < 0.05), and lower Matrix Reasoning scores. Stronger religious beliefs were negatively associated (directly and indirectly) with multiscale properties of salience and default-mode networks, and lower Flanker and Dimensional Card Sort scores, but positively associated with properties of the precuneus. Overall, these effects were small (Cohen’s d ~ 0.2 to ~ 0.4). Overlapping neuromodulatory and cognitive effects of parental beliefs suggest that early adolescents may perceive religious beliefs partly as context-independent rules on expected behavior. However, religious beliefs may also differentially affect cognitive flexibility, attention, and inhibitory control and their neural substrates.
Danilo Bzdok and Robin I. M. Dunbar review the neurobiology of human and primate social behaviours and how the pandemic may have disrupted these systems.44% of adolescents who game heavily report a better sense of wellbeing than those who game less or don’t play video games at all. Research finds getting less than nine hours of sleep nightly is associated with cognitive difficulties, mental problems, and less gray matter in certain brain regions.
. A study in Black women has found that exposure to racism is linked with changes in brain white matter, which may affect overall health.Story at a glance Researchers at Stanford compared brain scans of youth from before the coronavirus pandemic to scans taken during the pandemic. They found that the brains of adolescents who experi. Previous research has demonstrated reduction in cortical and subcortical, including basal ganglia (BG), gray matter volumes (GMV) in individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a neurodevelopmental condition that is more prevalent in males than in females. However, the volumetric deficits vary across studies. Whether volumetric reductions are more significant in males than females; to what extent these neural markers are heritable and relate to cognitive dysfunction in ADHD remain unclear. To address these questions, we followed published routines and performed voxel-based morphometry analysis of a data set (n = 11,502; 5,464 girls, 9–10 years) curated from the Adolescent Brain Cognition Development project, a population-based study of typically developing children. Of the sample, 634 and 2,826 were identified as monozygotic twins and dizygotic twins/siblings, respectively. In linear regressions, a cluster in the hypothalamus showed larger GMV, and bilateral caudate and putamen, lateral orbitofrontal and occipital cortex showed smaller GMVs, in correlation with higher ADHD scores in girls and boys combined. When examined separately, boys relative to girls showed more widespread (including BG) and stronger associations between GMV deficits and ADHD scores. ADHD traits and the volumetric correlates demonstrated heritability estimates (a2) between 0.59 and 0.79, replicating prior findings of the genetic basis of ADHD. Further, ADHD traits and the volumetric correlates (except for the hypothalamus) were each negatively and positively correlated with N-back performance. Together, these findings confirm volumetric deficits in children with more prominent ADHD traits. Highly heritable in both girls and boys and potentially more significant in boys than in girls, the structural deficits underlie diminished capacity in working memory and potentially other cognitive deficits in ADHD.Although Down syndrome (DS) is the most common genetic cause of neurodevelopmental delay, few neuroimaging studies have explored this population. This investigation aimed to study whole-brain resting-state spontaneous brain activity using fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF) and regional homogeneity (ReHo) strategies to find differences in spontaneous brain activity among young people with DS and controls and to correlate these results with cognitive outcomes. The sample comprised 18 persons with DS (age mean = 28.67, standard deviation = 4.18) and 18 controls (age mean = 28.56, standard deviation = 4.26). fALFF and ReHo analyses were performed, and the results were correlated with other cognitive variables also collected (KBIT-2 and verbal fluency test). Increased activity was found in DS using fALFF in areas involving the frontal and temporal lobes and left cerebellum anterior lobe. Decreased activity in DS was found in the left parietal and occipital lobe, the left limbic lobe and the left cerebellum posterior lobe. ReHo analysis showed increased activity in certain DS areas of the left frontal lobe and left rectus, as well as the inferior temporal lobe. The areas with decreased activity in the DS participants were regions of the frontal lobe and the right limbic lobe. Altered fALFF and ReHo were found in the DS population, and this alteration could predict the cognitive abilities of the participants. To our knowledge, this is the first study to explore regional spontaneous brain activity in a population with DS. Moreover, this study suggests the possibility of using fALFF and ReHo as biomarkers of cognitive function, which is highly important given the difficulties in cognitively evaluating this population to assess dementia. More research is needed, however, to demonstrate its utility.The latest findings add to the understanding of how social disadvantage such as poverty and low-quality, unsafe housing can affect early child development.
Little is known about the personality and cognitive traits that shape adolescents’ sensitivity to social norms. Further, few studies have harnessed novel empirical tools to elicit sensitivity to social norms among adolescent populations. This paper examines the association between sensitivity to norms and various personality and cognitive traits using an incentivised rule-following task grounded in Game Theory. Cross-sectional data were obtained from 1274 adolescents. Self-administered questionnaires were used to measure personality traits as well as other psychosocial characteristics. Incentivised rule-following experiments gauged sensitivity to social norms. A series of multilevel mixed effects ordered logistic regression models were employed to assess the association between sensitivity to norms and the personality and cognitive traits. The results highlighted statistically significant univariate associations between the personality and cognitive traits and sensitivity to norms. However, in the multivariate adjusted model, the only factor associated with sensitivity to norms was gender. The gender-stratified analyses revealed differences in the personality and cognitive traits associated with sensitivity to norms across genders. For males need to belong was significantly negatively associated with sensitivity to norms in the multivariate model. By comparison, emotional stability was negatively associated with sensitivity to norms for females. This study reinforced the findings from an earlier study and suggested female adolescents had higher levels of sensitivity to norms. The results indicated no consistent pattern between sensitivity to norms and the personality and cognitive traits. Our findings provide a basis for further empirical research on a relatively nascent construct, and bring a fresh perspective to the question of norm-following preferences among this age group.The development of a child’s general and grammatical linguistic abilities between the ages of 3 to 4 is accompanied by the maturation of brain structures within the “language network”.A new theory proposes there is an underlying relationship between nap transition in young children, brain development, and memory formation.Individuals across six major psychiatric conditions from the ENIGMA consortium reveals a shared morphological effect, following a sensory-fugal axis, which is related to microstructural gradient and neurotransmitter axes.
Parts of the brain in which the APOE gene is most active are the areas that sustain the most damage associated with Alzheimer’s disease.Measurement(s) Cognition â¢ Psychiatric Diagnosis â¢ Development Technology Type(s) MRI â¢ phenotypic battery â¢ actigraphy â¢ laboratory analysis Sample Characteristic – Organism Homo sapien Sample Characteristic – Environment Community-ascertained non-diagnostic sample Sample Characteristic – Location United States. Changes in brain morphology have been reported during development, ageing and in relation to different pathologies. Brain morphology described by the shape complexity of gyri and sulci can be captured and quantified using fractal dimension (FD). This measure of brain structural complexity, as well as brain volume, are associated with intelligence, but less is known about the sexual dimorphism of these relationships. In this paper, sex differences in the relationship between brain structural complexity and general intelligence (g) in two diverse geographic and cultural populations (UK and Indian) are investigated. 3D T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data and a battery of cognitive tests were acquired from participants belonging to three different cohorts: Mysore Parthenon Cohort (MPC); Aberdeen Children of the 1950s (ACONF) and UK Biobank. We computed MRI derived structural brain complexity and g estimated from a battery of cognitive tests for each group. Brain complexity and volume were both positively corelated with intelligence, with the correlations being significant in women but not always in men. This relationship is seen across populations of differing ages and geographical locations and improves understanding of neurobiological sex-differences.41% of teenagers have a tough time discerning between real and fake health-related news, a new study reports. A GWAS study of European individuals uncovers genetic associations between whole-body MRI derived measures and cardiometabolic diseases and highlights the key role of liver fat in cardiometabolic health.