A team led by researchers from Tokyo Metropolitan University have identified the best methods to study the resting state of the brain in marmosets using functional MRI.An obvious consequence of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is the worldwide reduction in social interaction, which is associated with many adverse effects on health in humans from babies to adults. Although social development under normal or isolated environments has been studied since the 1940s, the mechanism underlying social isolation (SI)-induced brain dysfunction remains poorly understood, possibly due to the complexity of SI in humans and translational gaps in findings from animal models. Herein, we present a systematic review that focused on brain changes at the molecular, cellular, structural and functional levels induced by SI at different ages and in different animal models. SI studies in humans and animal models revealed common socioemotional and cognitive deficits caused by SI in early life and an increased occurrence of depression and anxiety induced by SI during later stages of life. Altered neurotransmission and neural circuitry as well as abnormal development and function of glial cells in specific brain regions may contribute to the abnormal emotions and behaviors induced by SI. We highlight distinct alterations in oligodendrocyte progenitor cell differentiation and oligodendrocyte maturation caused by SI in early life and later stages of life, respectively, which may affect neural circuit formation and function and result in diverse brain dysfunctions. To further bridge animal and human SI studies, we propose alternative animal models with brain structures and complex social behaviors similar to those of humans.As people age, maintaining a positive and predictable social environment becomes more and more important. For instance, keeping close ties with.

. This year, surgeons transplanted the first pig organs into human recipients. Researchers are keen to launch more human trials. This year, surgeons transplanted the first pig organs into human recipients. Researchers are keen to launch more human trials.Functional connectivity and topic mapping of cortical networks reveal that an overlapping of functions exist within different thalamic nuclei, providing insight into the role of relay and higher-order nuclei with the cortex.A Perspective highlights current evidence that supports oligodendrocytes and their progenitors’ involvement in cognition and proposes that our understanding of learning and memory can be expanded beyond the classic view of synaptic plasticity to a system-wide network function.

Representations and decodability of diverse cognitive functions are preserved across the human cortex, cerebellum, and subcortex

Modelling based on fMRI data obtained during more than 100 different cognitive tasks reveals that representation and decoding are preserved across the cortex, cerebellum, and subcortex. Comparisons of frontoparietal connectivity between marmosets, rats and grey squirrels suggest the formation of a common frontoparietal network architecture among arboreal species (grey squirrels and marmosets) that might reflect convergent evolution. .

A thermodynamic-inspired framework enables researchers to quantify the balance between intrinsic and extrinsic dynamics in brain signals, providing further insight into how the brain behaves during sleep and when under anesthesia. .

. Effective teams are essential for optimally functioning societies. However, little is known regarding the neural basis of two or more individuals engaging cooperatively in real-world tasks, such as in operational training environments. In this exploratory study, we recruited forty individuals paired as twenty dyads and recorded dual-EEG at rest and during realistic training scenarios of increasing complexity using virtual simulation systems. We estimated markers of intrinsic brain activity (i.e., individual alpha frequency and aperiodic activity), as well as task-related theta and alpha oscillations. Using nonlinear modelling and a logistic regression machine learning model, we found that resting-state EEG predicts performance and can also reliably differentiate between members within a dyad. Task-related theta and alpha activity during easy training tasks predicted later performance on complex training to a greater extent than prior behaviour. These findings complement laboratory-based research on both oscillatory and aperiodic activity in higher-order cognition and provide evidence that theta and alpha activity play a critical role in complex task performance in team environments.