In a systematic review of existing studies, researchers found that air pollution such as fine particulate matter can interfere with regions of the brain responsible for emotional regulation.They’ve been studying the same group of people for 76 years. This is what they’ve learned about Alzheimer’s disease… so far. Psychology in epidemiology. This 2-year, 28-day study examined whether adolescents felt greater fatigue and emotional distress the same day and the day after air quality was worse. We linked objective daily air quality measurements to daily self-reports from 422 Mexican–American adolescents in Los Angeles County, California from 2009 to 2011 (50% girls, MAge = 15 years). A robust, within-subject analysis of 9696 observations revealed that adolescents with ongoing physical complaints reported greater fatigue and emotional distress on days that the air contained higher levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and carbon monoxide (CO). Regardless of physical complaints, adolescents on average also reported greater fatigue the day after NO2 levels were higher. The same-day and next-day associations between air pollution and distress were mediated via daily increases in fatigue. Results were robust when controlling for day of the week, and daily temperature and humidity. Sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O3), PM2.5 and PM10 were not related to daily fatigue or distress.

Danilo Bzdok and Robin I. M. Dunbar review the neurobiology of human and primate social behaviours and how the pandemic may have disrupted these systems. The human brain is constantly exposed to air pollutants, some of which might be disruptive or even lethal to certain neurons implicated in abstract features of cognitive function. In this review, we present new evidence from behavioral and neural studies in humans, suggesting a link between indoor fine particulate matter and decision-making behavior. To illustrate this relationship, we use qualitative sources, such as historical documents of the Vietnam War to develop hypotheses of how aerial transmission of pollutants might obstruct alternative choices during the evaluation of policy decisions. We first describe the neural circuits driving decision-making processes by addressing how neurons and their cognate receptors directly evaluate and transduce physical phenomena into sensory perceptions that allow us to decide the best course of action among competing alternatives. We then raise the possibility that indoor air pollutants might also impact cell-signaling systems outside the brain parenchyma to further obstruct the computational analysis of the social environment. We also highlight how particulate matter might be pathologically integrated into the brain to override control of sensory decisions, and thereby perturb selection of choice. These lines of research aim to extend our understanding of how inhalation of airborne particulates and toxicants in smoke, for example, might contribute to cognitive impairment and negative health outcomes.The National Medical Commission, NMC has released the Guidelines For Competency-Based Postgraduate Training Programme For DM In Geriatric Mental Health.The Principles adopted by UN General.

. Identifying brain alterations associated with suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STBs) in young people is critical to understanding their development and improving early intervention and prevention. The ENIGMA Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviours (ENIGMA-STB) consortium analyzed neuroimaging data harmonized across sites to examine brain morphology associated with STBs in youth. We performed analyses in three separate stages, in samples ranging from most to least homogeneous in terms of suicide assessment instrument and mental disorder. First, in a sample of 577 young people with mood disorders, in which STBs were assessed with the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS). Second, in a sample of young people with mood disorders, in which STB were assessed using different instruments, MRI metrics were compared among healthy controls without STBs (HC; N = 519), clinical controls with a mood disorder but without STBs (CC; N = 246) and young people with current suicidal ideation (N = 223). In separate analyses, MRI metrics were compared among HCs (N = 253), CCs (N = 217), and suicide attempters (N = 64). Third, in a larger transdiagnostic sample with various assessment instruments (HC = 606; CC = 419; Ideation = 289; HC = 253; CC = 432; Attempt=91). In the homogeneous C-SSRS sample, surface area of the frontal pole was lower in young people with mood disorders and a history of actual suicide attempts (N = 163) than those without a lifetime suicide attempt (N = 323; FDR-p = 0.035, Cohen’s d = 0.34). No associations with suicidal ideation were found. When examining more heterogeneous samples, we did not observe significant associations. Lower frontal pole surface area may represent a vulnerability for a (non-interrupted and non-aborted) suicide attempt; however, more research is needed to understand the nature of its relationship to suicide risk.The quantitative literature on climate change and mental health is growing rapidly.
However, the methodological quality of the evidence is heterogeneous, and there is
scope for methodological improvement and innovation. The first section of this Personal
View provides a snapshot of current methodological trends and issues in the quantitative
literature on climate change and mental health, drawing on literature collected through
a previous scoping review. The second part of this Personal View outlines opportunities
for methodological innovation concerning the assessment of the relationship between
climate change and mental health.Researchers found that air pollution, in people who were predisposed to depression, caused changes in the brain circuits responsible for key functions usually associated with depression.

. MRI data from more than 100 studies have been aggregated to yield new insights about brain development and ageing, and create an interactive open resource for comparison of brain structures throughout the human lifespan, including those associated with neurological and psychiatric disorders. In this report, the McKinsey Health Institute (MHI) looks at how over the next decade we can drive a higher quality of life of roughly six years per person.

Background Seafarers are often reported to be engaged in a dangerous physical and psychosocial work environment. However, mental health status among seafarers has not been focused on compared with physical health issues. Systematic, comprehensive reviews of mental health problems and their relevant factors are lacking. This review aimed to clarify beneficial approaches to the mental health problems faced among seafarers using a scoping review to systematically map the evidence regarding mental health issues and their related factors. Methods Studies were searched on MEDLINE/PubMed, Science Direct, Academic search complete using EBSCOhost databases, SCOPUS, EMBASE, and Web of science on 20, August 2020. This scoping review was conducted based on the framework of Arksey and O’Malley and Preferred Reporting items for Scoping Reviews flow diagram. The inclusion criteria were studies which determined the relationship between factors relevant to working conditions or working environment, and mental health in seafarers, and etc. Data were narratively summarized and reported. Results Twenty-four were included in this review while two major findings were clarified. Firstly, the prevalence of stress, depressive symptoms, and burnout have been mentioned for decades. Secondly, factors related to mental health and psychological issues can be categorized as individual and work environmental factors. The individual factors include experience, age, health status (high BMI, poor sleep, and diabetics), and resilience. The work environmental factors consist of two parts. Job demands comprise pressure from contractors/customers/time, working hours, ship department, job title, voyage episodes, period of seafaring, noise, and vibration. The job resources included instrumental support, team cohesion, shipboard caring and effort-reward imbalance. Conclusions A beneficial approach to mental health problems faced among seafarers is necessary to understand comprehensively at individual and organization levels. Promoting health behaviors, training resilience, and managing obesity and chronic diseases comprise individual level strategies. Providing seafarers with adequate instrumental support, and practical support to communicate with customers, managing their distinct work-rest hours and adequate effort-reward balance comprise organization level methods.An online training module that synergistically targets two different mindsets can reduce stress levels in adolescents in the context of social-evaluative stressors—stressful experiences in which individuals fear that others are judging them negatively. A new study shows that music playlists curated by AI plus auditory beat stimulation may help reduce symptoms of anxiety for some people.

. Background
COVID-19 has become a public health emergency caused by a negative-stranded ribonucleic acid (RNA) virus, which previously caused severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). In addition, the pandemic led to an array of social, financial, psychological, and psychiatric issues.
Methods
An observational study was performed with consecutive sampling and included patients diagnosed with COVID-19 and admitted to the hospital. Subjects were evaluated using a semi-structured proforma and an online survey of the revised Impact of Event Scale (IES-R) 15 days post-discharge from the hospital.
Results
A total of 201 subjects were recruited, of which approximately 30% were female, and the rest were male. Approximately half of the subjects experienced symptoms suggestive of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), with the highest number of patients falling in the severe category. Also, females experienced more anxiety symptoms than males (p=0.002).
Conclusion
Infection with COVID-19 and hospitalization tended to significantly impact individuals’ mental state. In addition, the majority of subjects had severe symptoms of post-COVID PTSD, warranting the need for treatment.A recent study concludes that cardiorespiratory fitness has links to the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease and related disorders in later life. A recent study that analyzed insurance claims found that Viagra (sildenafil) prescriptions were associated with a 69% reduced risk of Alzheimer’s.