WEDNESDAY, Nov. 16, 2022 (HealthDay News) — People with neuropsychiatric conditions and/or associated treatment have an increased risk for severe outcomes from COVID-19 and from other severe acute respiratory infections (SARIs), according to a study published online Nov. 9 in JAMA Psychiatry.In this CME article, explore the mental health consequences associated with the COVID-19 pandemic as well as the potential role for complementary and alternative approaches.In a matched cohort study from Germany, including more than 157,000 individuals with COVID-19, Dr. Martin Roessler and colleagues investigate post COVID-19 associated morbidity in children, adolescents, and adults.

Patients with Post-COVID syndrome (PCS) are frequently referred for cardiologic evaluation. We assessed cardiac function and biomarkers in relation to functional status and fatigue in patients with PCS. This prospective single-center cohort study included 227 patients with persisting symptoms after COVID-19 infection. Most frequent complaints were fatigue (70%), dyspnea (56%), neurocognitive symptoms (34%) and chest pain (28%). Standardized questionnaires were used to assess Post-COVID-Functional-Scale (PCFS) and fatigue (MFI-20). The fatigue severity was inversely related to age and did not correlate with cardiovascular diseases, echocardiographic findings, or biomarkers. Similarly, mild to moderate functional impairment (PCFS 1–3) did not correlate with cardiovascular alterations. However, the subgroup of patients with significant functional impairment (PCFS = 4) had more frequent cardiovascular comorbidities, biomarkers and impaired global longitudinal strain (GLS). Patients with elevated troponin T showed abnormal GLS, reduced left ventricular ejection fraction and impaired tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion. The majority of patients with PCS shows a normal cardiac function. Only the small subgroup of patients with severe functional impairment and patients with elevated troponin T is at risk for impaired cardiac function and likely to benefit from specialized care by a cardiologist.The neurotropism of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can potentially explain the worsening of symptoms in patients with a history of neurological conditions such as stroke, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s, and epilepsy. Several studies have reported that these pre-existing conditions may worsen with a higher frequency of flare-ups, thus resulting in a more significant risk of patient mortality. In this review, we sought to provide an overview of the relationship between pre-existing neurological disorders and COVID-19, focusing on whether the initial infection directly influenced the severity of symptoms. We systematically searched the electronic database PubMed (MEDLINE) and used specific keywords related to our aims from January 2020 to July 2022. All articles published on COVID-19 with keywords pertaining to pre-existing neurological diseases were retrieved and subsequently analyzed. After independent review, the data from 107 articles were selected and evaluated. After analyzing the data from selected articles reviewing the effect of COVID-19 on neurological conditions, we have documented the relationship between said pre-existing neurological diseases, showing an increased risk of hospitalization, admission length, worsening of symptoms, and even mortality in COVID-19 patients.CAPLYTA net product revenues for the third quarter 2022 were $71.9 million, compared to $21.6 million for the same period in 2021, representing a 233% increase over the same period in 2021 and a 30% increase over the second quarter 2022 Third quarter 2022 CAPLYTA total prescriptions increased 220%, versus the same period in 2021 and 26% sequentially versus the second quarter 2022 NEW YORK, Nov. 03, 2022 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) — Intra-Cellular Therapies, Inc. (Nasdaq: ITCI), a biopharmaceutical compan. Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) is a single-gene disorder associated with cognitive phenotypes common to neurodevelopmental conditions such as autism. GABAergic dysregulation underlies working memory impairments seen in NF1. This mechanistic experimental study investigates whether application of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (atDCS) can modulate GABA and working memory in NF1. Thirty-one NF1 adolescents 11–18 years, were recruited to this single-blind sham-controlled cross-over randomized trial. AtDCS or sham stimulation was applied to the left Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex (DLPFC) and MR Spectroscopy was collected before and after intervention in the left DLPFC and occipital cortex. Task-related functional MRI was collected before, during, and after stimulation. Higher baseline GABA+ in the left DLPFC was associated with faster response times on baseline working memory measures. AtDCS was seen to significantly reduced GABA+ and increase brain activation in the left DLPFC as compared to sham stimulation. Task performance was worse in the aTDCS group during stimulation but no group differences in behavioural outcomes were observed at the end of stimulation. Although our study suggests aTDCS modulates inhibitory activity in the DLPFC, further work is needed to determine whether repeated sessions of atDCS and strategies such as alternating current stimulation offer a better therapeutic approach.

COVID-19 on the Brain: Neurological Symptoms Persist in Majority of Long-Haulers

A UC San Diego study describes the short- and long-term neurological symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection, and identifies a new group of COVID-19 long-haulers with advanced motor and cognitive symptoms. . The long-term physical and mental sequelae of COVID-19 are a growing public health concern, yet there is considerable uncertainty about their prevalence, persistence and predictors. We conducted a comprehensive, up-to-date meta-analysis of survivors’ health consequences and sequelae for COVID-19. PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library were searched through Sep 30th, 2021. Observational studies that reported the prevalence of sequelae of COVID-19 were included. Two reviewers independently undertook the data extraction and quality assessment. Of the 36,625 records identified, a total of 151 studies were included involving 1,285,407 participants from thirty-two countries. At least one sequelae symptom occurred in 50.1% (95% CI 45.4-54.8) of COVID-19 survivors for up to 12 months after infection. The most common investigation findings included abnormalities on lung CT (56.9%, 95% CI 46.2–67.3) and abnormal pulmonary function tests (45.6%, 95% CI 36.3–55.0), followed by generalized symptoms, such as fatigue (28.7%, 95% CI 21.0–37.0), psychiatric symptoms (19.7%, 95% CI 16.1–23.6) mainly depression (18.3%, 95% CI 13.3–23.8) and PTSD (17.9%, 95% CI 11.6–25.3), and neurological symptoms (18.7%, 95% CI 16.2–21.4), such as cognitive deficits (19.7%, 95% CI 8.8–33.4) and memory impairment (17.5%, 95% CI 8.1–29.6). Subgroup analysis showed that participants with a higher risk of long-term sequelae were older, mostly male, living in a high-income country, with more severe status at acute infection. Individuals with severe infection suffered more from PTSD, sleep disturbance, cognitive deficits, concentration impairment, and gustatory dysfunction. Survivors with mild infection had high burden of anxiety and memory impairment after recovery. Our findings suggest that after recovery from acute COVID-19, half of survivors still have a high burden of either physical or mental sequelae up to at least 12 months. It is important to provide urgent and appropriate prevention and intervention management to preclude persistent or emerging long-term sequelae and to promote the physical and psychiatric wellbeing of COVID-19 survivors.

New research finds a connection between severe COVID-19 that requires hospitalization and deficits in cognitive function that persist 6–10 months after illness onset.Self-reporting COVID-19 was longitudinally associated with deterioration in mental
health and life satisfaction. Our findings emphasise the need for greater post-infection
mental health service provision, given the substantial prevalence of COVID-19 in the
UK and worldwide.As a global health emergency, the rapid spread of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) led to the implementation of widespread restrictions (e.g., quarantine, physical/social distancing measures). However, while these restrictions reduce the viral spread of COVID-19, they may exacerbate behavioural and cognitive symptoms in dementia patients and increase pressure on caregiving. Here, we aimed to assess the impact of COVID-19 and related restrictions on both carers and people living with dementia across the world. We conducted an international survey (Australia, Germany, Spain, and the Netherlands) to assess the impact of COVID-19 on carers and people living with dementia. People with dementia experienced worsened neuropsychiatric symptoms since the outbreak of COVID-19, most commonly, depression, apathy, delusions, anxiety, irritability, and agitation. Regression analyses revealed that limited understanding of the COVID-19 situation and not living with the carer was associated with worsened neuropsychiatric symptoms. Carers also reported a decline in their own mental health, increased stress and reduced social networks as a result of COVID-19 and related restrictions. Regression analyses revealed uncertainty about the future and loneliness were associated with worsened carer mental health. Findings from this study will inform strategies for the development of support services and compassionate protocols that meet the evolving needs of those living with dementia and their carers.Most COVID-19 patients recovered with low mortality; however, some patients experienced long-term symptoms described as “long-COVID” or “Post-COVID syndrome” (PCS). Patients may have persisting symptoms for weeks after acute SARS-CoV-2 infection, including dyspnea, fatigue, myalgia, insomnia, cognitive and olfactory disorders. These symptoms may last for months in some patients. PCS may progress in association with the development of mast cell activation syndrome (MCAS), which is a distinct kind of mast cell activation disorder, characterized by hyper-activation of mast cells with inappropriate and excessive release of chemical mediators. COVID-19 survivors, mainly women, and patients with persistent severe fatigue for 10 weeks after recovery with a history of neuropsychiatric disorders are more prone to develop PCS. High D-dimer levels and blood urea nitrogen were observed to be risk factors associated with pulmonary dysfunction in COVID-19 survivors 3 months post-hospital discharge with the development of PCS. PCS has systemic manifestations that resolve with time with no further complications. However, the final outcomes of PCS are chiefly unknown. Persistence of inflammatory reactions, autoimmune mimicry, and reactivation of pathogens together with host microbiome alterations may contribute to the development of PCS. The deregulated release of inflammatory mediators in MCAS produces extraordinary symptoms in patients with PCS. The development of MCAS during the course of SARS-CoV-2 infection is correlated to COVID-19 severity and the development of PCS. Therefore, MCAS is treated by antihistamines, inhibition of synthesis of mediators, inhibition of mediator release, and inhibition of degranulation of mast cells.

. Most participants in this cohort of individuals previously hospitalised with COVID-19
reported persistent symptoms 3 months after hospital discharge and a significant impact
of PCC on their functional and occupational status. The large burden of PCC symptoms
identified in this study emphasises the need for a national health strategy. This
should include the development of clinical guidelines and training of health-care
workers for identifying, assessing, and caring for patients affected by PCC; establishment
of multidisciplinary health services; and provision of information and support to
people who have PCC.The post COVID-19 condition is a complex and heterogeneous syndrome that develops in people with prior SARS-CoV-2 infection. More than 100 symptoms have been reported in people with the post COVID-19 condition, and these appear to be associated with reduced quality of life, reduced function, and impairments in people’s ability to work and care for themselves. There remains significant uncertainty in the definition, magnitude of prevalence, causes, risk factors, prevention, and prognosis of the post COVID-19 condition, as well as its impact on people’s quality of life, function, and ability to work. Nonetheless, the reported range of these effects in the published literature suggest that the post COVID-19 condition poses substantial health risks to adults across a diverse range of outcomes that have the potential to impart a considerable burden on individuals and healthcare systems. More contemporary evidence in the era of widespread vaccination and emerging variants resulting in less severe illness than earlier variants suggests that the post COVID-19 condition may now be less frequent following SARS-CoV-2 infection. Still, a proactive and comprehensive strategy to manage the post COVID-19 condition needs to be developed by health systems and policy makers. This strategy should include substantial investments in research and health system resources to mitigate the long-term health, social, and economic impacts of the post COVID-19 condition in Ontario.After infection with SARS-CoV-2, individuals show a greater reduction in grey matter thickness and tissue contrast in the orbitofrontal cortex and parahippocampal gyrus; greater changes in markers of tissue damage in regions that are functionally connected to the primary olfactory cortex; and a greater reduction in global brain size.

As long COVID cases grow, clues emerge about who is most at risk

Tens of millions of people now have an array of lingering symptoms. Figuring out their common risk factors could help tailor treatments. . Long-term sequelae of symptomatic infection caused by SARS-CoV-2 are largely undiscovered. We performed a prospective cohort study on consecutively hospitalized Sars-CoV-2 patients (March–May 2020) for evaluating COVID-19 outcomes at 6 and 12 months. After hospital discharge, patients were addressed to two follow-up pathways based on respiratory support needed during hospitalization. Outcomes were assessed by telephone consultation or ambulatory visit. Among 471 patients, 80.9% received no respiratory support during hospitalization; 19.1% received non-invasive ventilation (NIV) or invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). 58 patients died during hospitalization, therefore 413 were enrolled for follow-up. At 6 months, among 355 patients, the 30.3% had any symptoms, 18.0% dyspnea, 6.2% neurological symptoms. Fifty-two out of 105 had major damages in interstitial computed tomography images. NIV/IMV patients had higher probability to suffer of symptoms (aOR = 4.00, 95%CI:1.99–8.05), dyspnea (aOR = 2.80, 95%CI:1.28–6.16), neurological symptoms (aOR = 9.72, 95%CI:2.78–34.00). At 12 months, among 344, the 25.3% suffered on any symptoms, 12.2% dyspnea, 10.1% neurological symptoms. Severe interstitial lesions were present in 37 out of 47 investigated patients. NIV/IMV patients in respect to no respiratory support, had higher probability of experiencing symptoms (aOR = 3.66, 95%CI:1.73–7.74), neurological symptoms (aOR = 8.96, 95%CI:3.22–24.90). COVID-19 patients showed prolonged sequelae up to 12 months, highlighting the need of follow-up pathways for post-COVID-19 syndrome. Prospective observational study.
SETTING:
One hundred seventy-nine hospitals in 24 countries within the Society of Critical Care Medicine Discovery Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness Universal Study COVID-19 Registry.
PATIENTS:
Hospitalized adults with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection.
INTERVENTIONS:
None.
RESULTS:
Of 16,225 patients enrolled in the registry with hospital discharge status available, 2,092 (12.9%) developed serious neurologic manifestations including 1,656 (10.2%) with encephalopathy at admission, 331 (2.0%) with stroke, 243 (1.5%) with seizure, and 73 (0.5%) with meningitis/encephalitis at admission or during hospitalization. Patients with serious neurologic manifestations of COVID-19 were older with median (interquartile range) age 72 years (61.0–81.0 yr) versus 61 years (48.0–72.0 yr) and had higher prevalence of chronic medical conditions, including vascular risk factors. Adjusting for age, sex, and time since the onset of the pandemic, serious neurologic manifestations were associated with more severe disease (odds ratio [OR], 1.49; p < 0.001) as defined by the World Health Organization ordinal disease severity scale for COVID-19 infection. Patients with neurologic manifestations were more likely to be admitted to the ICU (OR, 1.45; p < 0.001) and require critical care interventions (extracorporeal membrane oxygenation: OR, 1.78; p = 0.009 and renal replacement therapy: OR, 1.99; p < 0.001). Hospital, ICU, and 28-day mortality for patients with neurologic manifestations was higher (OR, 1.51, 1.37, and 1.58; p < 0.001), and patients had fewer ICU-free, hospital-free, and ventilator-free days (estimated difference in days, –0.84, –1.34, and –0.84; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Encephalopathy at admission is common in hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and is associated with worse outcomes. While serious neurologic manifestations including stroke, seizure, and meningitis/encephalitis were less common, all were associated with increased ICU support utilization, more severe disease, and worse outcomes.

. It is increasingly obvious that individuals are experiencing post-COVID-19 syndromes, or ‘long-haul COVID’. Here, Merad and Mehandru eview currently available knowledge of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of these sequelae, elaborating on persistent inflammation, induced autoimmunity and putative viral reservoirs.

Since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic in early 2020, China has adopted an ongoing,
community-based, dynamic, zero-COVID-19 policy. However, with the highly transmissible
omicron variant becoming predominant, the cost of implementing a zero-COVID-19 policy
is increasing.1 Given the growing prevalence of vaccination, the decreasing COVID-19
fatality rate, and the development of herd immunity, some health professionals and
researchers have advocated for de-escalation and easing of restrictions to mitigate
the economic impact of mass lockdowns.People who recover from COVID-19 may be at a significantly high risk of developing mental health disorders, including anxiety and depression, according to a study published in the BMJ. One in eight people who were hospitalized with COVID-19 between May 2020 and March 2021 were later diagnosed with myocarditis, or heart inflammation, according to major new research into the clinical long-term effects of COVID-19.Cognitive deficits after severe COVID-19 relate most strongly to acute illness severity,
persist long into the chronic phase, and recover slowly if at all, with a characteristic
profile highlighting higher cognitive functions and processing speed.The coronavirus can infect the upper respiratory tract, sinuses, and nose, and its severity manifests in its respiratory symptoms and neurological and psychological consequences. The majority of people who have COVID-19 present with moderate flu-like illness, and patients who are elderly with comorbid conditions, such as hypertension and diabetes, are more prone to experience severe illness and death. However, in the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, neurological consequences have become a substantial source of morbidity and mortality. COVID-19 poses a global hazard to the nervous system because of its widespread dispersion and multiple pathogenic pathways. This review offers a critical assessment of the acute and long-term neurological effects of the COVID-19 virus. Some neurological problems include headache, dizziness, myalgia/fatigue, meningitis, ischemic/hemorrhagic stroke, and myelitis. Other people who have contracted COVID-19 also exhibit neurological features such as loss of taste and smell, reduced consciousness, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. This study seeks to help neurologists comprehend the wide range of neurologic aspects of COVID-19, as understanding neurological symptoms may help with the management and enhance the patient’s outcomes.