An analysis framework is developed, which infers changes in neural tuning from BOLD signals in healthy participants. Magnetoelectric materials hold untapped potential to revolutionize biomedical technologies. Sensing of biophysical processes in the brain is a particularly attractive application, with the prospect of using magnetoelectric nanoparticles (MENPs) as injectable agents for rapid brain-wide modulation and recording. Recent studies have demonstrated wireless brain stimulation in vivo using MENPs synthesized from cobalt ferrite (CFO) cores coated with piezoelectric barium titanate (BTO) shells. CFO–BTO core–shell MENPs have a relatively high magnetoelectric coefficient and have been proposed for direct magnetic particle imaging (MPI) of brain electrophysiology. However, the feasibility of acquiring such readouts has not been demonstrated or methodically quantified. Here we present the results of implementing a strain-based finite element magnetoelectric model of CFO–BTO core–shell MENPs and apply the model to quantify magnetization in response to neural electric fields. We use the model to determine optimal MENPs-mediated electrophysiological readouts both at the single neuron level and for MENPs diffusing in bulk neural tissue for in vivo scenarios. Our results lay the groundwork for MENP recording of electrophysiological signals and provide a broad analytical infrastructure to validate MENPs for biomedical applications.The critical brain hypothesis has emerged as an attractive framework to understand neuronal activity, but it is still widely debated. In this work, we analyze data from a multi-electrodes array in the rat’s cortex and we find that power-law neuronal avalanches satisfying the crackling-noise relation coexist with spatial correlations that display typical features of critical systems. In order to shed a light on the underlying mechanisms at the origin of these signatures of criticality, we introduce a paradigmatic framework with a common stochastic modulation and pairwise linear interactions inferred from our data. We show that in such models power-law avalanches that satisfy the crackling-noise relation emerge as a consequence of the extrinsic modulation, whereas scale-free correlations are solely determined by internal interactions. Moreover, this disentangling is fully captured by the mutual information in the system. Finally, we show that analogous power-law avalanches are found in more realistic models of neural activity as well, suggesting that extrinsic modulation might be a broad mechanism for their generation.

Myelination is a key regulator of brain function. Here the authors use MR-based myelin measures to examine if cortico-cortical interactions, as assessed by paired pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation, are affected by variations in myelin in the human brain.