A method appears to be the first to noninvasively reconstruct language from brain activity.This is the first non-invasive technique capable of ‘reading’ a person’s thoughts. Previous methods require implants of electrodes into the brain.By linking blood flow patterns to bioelectric signals in the brains of sleeping volunteers, scientists are studying the order in which brain regions fall asleep and wake up.

Low participant numbers render the results of many studies based on brain scans unreliable, an analysis finds.Researchers are pursuing age-old questions about the nature of thoughts—and learning how to read them.By combining deep learning and electron microscopy, researchers now have a more detailed understanding of how fear changes the brain.Once thought of as a mere motor coordination center, the “little brain” is now appreciated as participating in higher neurological processes.

Electrically Zapping Specific Brain Regions Can Boost Memory

Low-intensity electrical stimulation allows older adults to better recall a list of words for at least a month following the treatment, a study finds, providing further evidence for the debated idea that electrical stimulation can enhance cognitive performance.Study finds that, contrary to what other research has found, a popular meditation course does not appear to alter brain structure.Researchers who spoke with Spectrum say that while brain imaging tools have their limitations, they still hold promise in helping to unlock the brain’s secrets.People who had cognitive functions depleted by noninvasive brain stimulation or a mentally demanding task could subconsciously recognize individual words in a made-up language more easily than controls, researchers find.

A new methodology combines existing techniques to reveal the specific function and location of multiple types of neurons at once.Three prizes were awarded to six researchers working across the life sciences on cellular organization, protein structure, and the genetic underpinnings of a chronic sleep disorder.While much is known about how the brains of English speakers process language, research has neglected people who speak other languages. The Scientist spoke with one of the authors of a study that seeks to change that.

The patient, who has ALS, is able to communicate in complete sentences by deliberately altering his brain’s activity.Specific neurons in the brainstem control sickness behaviors not directly caused by a pathogen, such as tiredness and lack of appetite, a mouse study finds.A new technique reveals cells’ precise locations and functions in the brain. Its developers have already used it to identify a previously unknown neuron type.The findings likely have implications for animal research far beyond the study of antidepressants.

Drug Spurs Neuron Growth in Mice with Chronic Spinal Cord Injury

A protein duo increases transcription of growth-related genes to enhance axon regeneration and boost plasticity, a study finds—but fails to improve mobility.Bottlenose dolphins can recall trivial details of a prior event to later solve a novel task, a study finds, suggesting these mammals are capable of episodic memory.The size and complexity of cephalopod brain structures differ depending on the habitats the creatures occupy, a study finds.Successful communication and cooperation among different members of society depends, in part, on a consistent understanding of the physical and social world. What drives this alignment in perspectives? We present evidence from two neuroimaging studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI; N = 66 with 2145 dyadic comparisons) and electroencephalography (EEG; N = 225 with 25,200 dyadic comparisons) to show that: (1) the extent to which people’s neural responses are synchronized when viewing naturalistic stimuli is related to their personality profiles, and (2) that this effect is stronger than that of similarity in gender, ethnicity and political affiliation. The localization of the fMRI results in combination with the additional eye tracking analyses suggest that the relationship between personality similarity and neural synchrony likely reflects alignment in the interpretation of stimuli and not alignment in overt visual attention. Together, the findings suggest that similarity in psychological dispositions aligns people’s reality via shared interpretations of the external world.Macaques continued to search for answers to an unsolvable laboratory task, seemingly refusing to believe that the correct answers were random and inconsistent.Performing complex cognitive tasks leads to glutamate accumulating in a key region of the brain, a study finds, which could explain why mental labor is so exhausting.

From a Nobel prize and photosynthesis-powered brains to neurodegeneration research and controversy over a new Alzheimer’s drug, a look back at some of the biggest brain-related developments of the year.An expert panel will describe their efforts to chart billions of neuronal connections and discuss how this data provides unparalleled insight into neuronal cell biology, signal processing, and behavior.The cells signal to the brain how hydrating particular beverages are, but it’s not yet clear whether they play a similar role in humans.Play Words for Nerds, a science word game by The Scientist inspired by Wordle. Guess the science-related word in six tries.

Genetic knockout experiments reveal a role for the protein in forming and maintaining synapses between motor neurons and muscle fibers in mice.The Biogen-developed treatment, called lecanemab, appears to have a more clear-cut effect on slowing the disease than the company’s previous Alzheimer’s drug, Aduhelm.For the first time, a team visualizes sensory nerves projecting into adipose tissue in mice and finds these neuronal cells may counteract the local effects of the sympathetic nervous system.A growth factor found in the cerebrospinal fluid of young mice triggered the proliferation of myelin-making cells when injected into the brains of older mice.Research identifies 10 types of dopamine-making neurons, one of which seems to die off during the disease.