Causes and Prevention of Psychosis Girl
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Psychosis is a condition when the sufferer has difficulty distinguishing between reality and imagination. This condition is characterized by the appearance of hallucinations and delusions.

Psychosis occurs because of a disorder in the brain that affects how the brain works in processing information. This condition changes the way the sufferer thinks and behaves.

Psychosis can interfere with the life of the sufferer, so it must be treated quickly and appropriately. The trick is with psychotherapy or medication.

Causes of Psychosis

Psychosis is actually a symptom of mental illness. However, it is not known exactly how this psychosis arose. The following are types of mental illness that can have symptoms of this disorder:

The psychotic episodes experienced by a person are often influenced by the type of mental illness experienced. For example, people with bipolar disorder are more likely to have grandiose delusions, whereas people with depression or schizophrenia are more likely to have delusions of abuse.

In addition to mental illness, psychosis can also occur in diseases caused by disorders of the brain (diseases that can cause complications in the brain). Examples of these diseases are:

  • Parkinson’s disease
  • Huntington’s disease
  • HIV/AIDS
  • Syphilis
  • Malaria
  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • Lupus
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Brain injury
  • Brain tumor or cyst
  • Stroke
  • Dementia

Psychosis Risk Factors

Although the exact cause is not known, the following are some factors that are thought to increase a person’s risk of experiencing psychosis:

  • Have a family member with a history of psychosis or other mental disorders
  • Experiencing a traumatic event, such as the death of a loved one or sexual harassment
  • Have a history of drug abuse or alcohol addiction
  • Have a history of mental and physical illness or injury that requires long-term treatment

Symptoms of Psychosis

The main symptom of psychosis is the appearance of delusions and hallucinations, which develop over time. Although it can sometimes subside, these symptoms do not go away completely.

Delusions are strong beliefs about something that is not real. There are various types of delusions that can occur in psychosis, including:

  • Erotomania delusions, namely the belief that someone (usually someone important or famous) loves him/her
  • Greatness Delusions, namely the belief that he is someone who is intelligent, powerful, or of high position
  • Delusions of jealousy, namely the belief that their partner is unfaithful, without clear evidence
  • Persecutory delusions, or the conviction that he or others around him are being treated unfairly, are being watched, or are about to be hurt.
  • Somatic delusions, namely the belief that he suffers from a disease or physical deformity

While hallucinations are perceptual disturbances that cause a person to see, hear, feel, or smell something that is not actually there and is not experienced by others.

In addition to delusions and hallucinations, other symptoms that can appear when a person experiences psychosis include:

  • Speak sloppy and off-topic
  • Difficulty interacting with other people
  • Mood disorders, such as depression or mania
  • Confusion
  • Sleep disturbance
  • Loss of appetite
  • Lost Spirit
  • Concentration disorders
  • Nervous
  • Suicide desire

When to go to the doctor

Talk to your doctor or psychiatrist if you experience one or more of the symptoms of psychosis, especially if you have feelings of self-harm or suicide.

Consult a doctor if any member of your family seems to be behaving strangely, disorganized, or uncontrollably.

Have regular check-ups with your doctor if you have been diagnosed with psychosis, so that your condition can be monitored.

Psychosis Diagnosis

To diagnose a psychotic disorder, the doctor will ask questions about the symptoms experienced and the patient’s and family’s medical history, especially about mental health history.

The doctor may also explore the patient’s personality and traits, including his behaviour since childhood and the patient’s way of dealing with problems. After that, the doctor will perform a physical examination to find out whether the patient’s symptoms are caused by illness or physical abuse.

To see whether there are other diseases that may be the cause of the above complaints, the doctor will perform several supporting examinations, such as:

  • Blood tests, to find out whether the patient’s symptoms are caused by alcoholism or drug use
  • Scanning with X-rays, CT scans, or MRIs, to see if there is a disease in the brain

Psychosis Treatment

People with psychosis should get treatment immediately. If psychosis is not treated immediately, the symptoms will get worse. This will affect the patient’s life, both in the environment where they live and at work.

The method of treatment of psychosis depends on the cause. The following are some treatment methods that can be done:

Administration of antipsychotic drugs

Doctors will give antipsychotic drugs to help relieve the main symptoms, namely delusions and hallucinations. Antipsychotics work by affecting chemical compounds in the brain (neurotransmitters), especially dopamine.

Antipsychotic drugs can be given in the form of a drink or an injection. Giving these drugs must be with the doctor’s advice because the dose will be adjusted according to the age and condition of the patient.

Some types of antipsychotic drugs that doctors can give for patients with psychosis are:

  • Haloperidol
  • Chlorpromazine
  • Perphenazine
  • Aripiprazole
  • Risperidone
  • Quetiapine
  • Olanzapine

In addition to antipsychotic drugs, doctors can also prescribe antidepressants or anti mania (mood stabilizers), to relieve depression and mania, which are often experienced by people with psychosis. The doctor will also inject a sedative if the patient’s symptoms are at risk of injuring himself or others.

Psychotherapy

Doctors will also advise patients to follow psychotherapy, along with medication. The goal is to change thinking and behaviour and reduce the anxiety experienced by the patient. That way, the patient can return to their activities.

Some methods of psychotherapy that can be used to treat psychosis are:

1. Cognitive behavioural therapy

Cognitive-behavioural therapy is carried out by directing the patient to understand and understand the condition he is suffering from. The goal is for the patient to be able to control the symptoms they are experiencing.

2. Family therapy

The psychotic patient needs his family to help him cope with the symptoms. However, the patient’s family of course also needs information and emotional support to deal with psychosis.

Family therapy aims to help families identify psychosis treatment options, understand how to support patients, and understand how to resolve problems caused by psychosis when symptoms recur.

3. Group therapy

People with psychosis can also join groups whose members both suffer from psychosis. The goal is for patients to understand their condition, and know-how to prevent and relieve symptoms of psychosis. This group is usually guided by a psychologist or psychiatrist.

4. Cognitive enhancement therapy

This therapy is done using computers and group work. The goal is to help patients think and understand things better.

5. Coordinated special care

This therapy combines medication, psychotherapy, and support for patients to continue their work or education. This therapy is expected to help patients to be able to carry out their normal activities.

Psychotic Complications

If not treated properly, people with psychosis run the risk of abandoning themselves. This condition makes people with psychosis vulnerable to doing reckless things or endangering themselves, for example abusing illegal drugs or consuming alcoholic beverages in excess.

Hallucinations or delusions experienced by people with psychosis can also encourage them to do something dangerous. For example, auditory hallucinations may tell the sufferer to commit suicide or do something dangerous.

Psychosis Prevention

Psychosis cannot be prevented. However, you can lower your risk of developing psychosis by doing the following:

  • Treating diseases that are at risk of causing psychosis
  • Avoid smoking, consuming alcoholic beverages, and abusing drugs
  • Tell your family, friends, or psychologist about things that traumatize or worry you
  • Doing relaxation to deal with stress, for example with yoga or Pilates
  • Enough sleep
  • Exercise regularly