Raising children is not an easy job. Even the best-behaved children can sometimes turn out to be unruly and rebellious. However, if a child or teenager has attitudes such as irritability, quarrelsomeness, defiance, or frequent and persistent retaliation against parents or even teachers, the child may have oppositional defiant disorder ( ODD ). So, what is Symptoms Experienced by People with ODD?
As a parent, you don’t have to tackle it alone in trying to manage a child with ODD. Doctors, mental health professionals, and child development experts can help. Behavioral treatment for ODD involves learning skills to help build positive family interactions and to manage problem behaviors. Additional therapy, and possibly medication, may be needed to treat associated mental health disorders.
These are the Symptoms of Children with ODD
It is sometimes difficult to recognize the difference between a strong-willed or emotional child and a child with ODD. This is because showing oppositional behavior at a certain stage in a child’s development is normal.
However, signs of ODD generally begin during the preschool years. Sometimes ODD can develop later, but almost always before early adolescence. This behavior causes significant interference with family, social activities, school, and work.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), published by the American Psychiatric Association , lists criteria for diagnosing ODD. The DSM-5 criteria include emotional and behavioral symptoms lasting at least six months. Symptoms include:
The mood is always angry and irritable:
- Easily angered.
- Sensitive and easily annoyed by others.
- Angry and upset.
Argumentative and challenging behavior:
- Argue with adults or people in authority such as teachers or sports coaches.
- Actively opposes or refuses to comply with adult requests or rules.
- Intentionally irritates people.
- Blames others for his mistakes or behavior.
ODD can also vary in severity:
- light . Symptoms only appear in one place, such as at home, school, work or with peers.
- Medium . Some symptoms occur in at least two environments.
- weight . Some symptoms appear in three or more environments.
For some children, symptoms may initially appear only at home, but over time extend to other places, such as school and with friends. The child is unlikely to see his behavior as a problem. Instead, he may complain about unreasonable demands or blame someone else for the problem.
If your child is showing signs that might indicate ODD or other disruptive behavior, or you’re concerned that you won’t be a good parent to a child with this trait, seek help from a child psychologist or child psychiatrist who specializes in this behavior. Or you can also make an appointment at the hospital to meet with a psychiatrist.
Causes and Risk Factors of ODD
There is no definite cause of the disorder against the opposition. Contributing causes can be a combination of inherited and environmental factors, including:
- Genetics . A child’s natural disposition or temperament and possible neurobiological differences in the way nerves work and brain function can be causes of ODD.
- environment . Problems with parenting that may involve a lack of supervision, inconsistent or harsh discipline, or abuse or neglect can also trigger ODD.
Meanwhile, there are several factors that cause a child to be at risk of experiencing ODD, including:
- Temperament. When a child has a temperament that includes difficulty regulating emotions, such as being very emotionally reactive to situations or having difficulty tolerating frustration.
- Parenting Problems . Children who experience abuse or neglect, harsh or inconsistent discipline, or lack of parental supervision.
- Family Problems . A child living with parents or family disputes or having parents with mental health disorders or drug use
- environment . Defying and challenging behavior can be reinforced and reinforced through attention from peers and inconsistent discipline from other authority figures, such as teachers.